All About Vitamins – Chemical Names, Deficiency Disease and Sources

Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of a multicellular organism.

Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. In humans there are basically 13 recognized vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C). Water-soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water whereas Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fats).

Many people in the United States and other countries take multivitamins and other supplements, though these may not be necessary or helpful, according to research.

S.No. Vitamin Chemical Name Deficiency Disease Sources
1 Vitamin – A Retinol Night Blindness Liver, orange, ripe yellow fruits, leafy vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, squash, spinach, fish, soya milk, milk
2 Vitamin – B1 Thiamine Beriberi Pork, oatmeal, brown rice, vegetables, potatoes, liver, eggs
3 Vitamin – B2 Riboflavin Ariboflavinosis, Skin disorders Dairy products, bananas, popcorn, green beans, asparagus
4 Vitamin – B3 Niacin, Niacinamide Pellagra Meat, fish, eggs, many vegetables, mushrooms, tree nuts
5 Vitamin – B5 Pantothenic Acid Paresthesia Meat, broccoli, avocados
6 Vitamin – B6 Pyridoxine Anemia, Skin diseases Meat, vegetables, tree nuts, bananas
7 Vitamin – H/B7 Biotin Dermatitis, Hair Fall Raw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, leafy green vegetables
8 Vitamin – B9 Folic Acid Megaloblastic Anemia Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal, liver
9 Vitamin – B12 Cyanocobalamin Megaloblastic Anemia Meat and other animal products
10 Vitamin – C Ascorbic Acid Scurvy Many fruits and vegetables, liver
11 Vitamin – D Cholecalciferol Rickets and Osteomalacia Fish, eggs, liver, mushrooms
12 Vitamin – E Tocopherols Decreased Fertility Many fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds
13 Vitamin – K Phylloquinone Blood Clotting Leafy green vegetables such as spinach, egg yolks
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